Wednesday, 29 April 2009

Aqidah 112

The Holy Qur'an is the speech of Allah Ta'ala.

It is eternal and uncreated.

Allah Ta'ala has referred to the Qur'an as His Speech and has linked it to Himself.

There is a unanimous consensus of the Ummah on this that the Holy Qur'an is the Speech of Allah Ta'ala and it is His quality.

Allaah Ta'ala is eternal in all His Qualities.

There was no difference of opinion during the first era of Islam that the Qur'an is uncreated; and even the predecessors after the era of the Sahabah RA were unanimous that the Qur'an is not a creation.

Allaah Ta'ala says:

"Indeed Our Speech to a thing when We desire it, then We say to it 'Be' and it is."

Therefore if everything is created by the word "Be" then it should be understood that these words and this Speech of Allah Ta'ala is not a creation. Otherwise to create this word another word "Be" would be necessary. And for the second one, a third would be necessary. This will continue into infinity. Hence it is established that the Speech of Allah Ta'ala is not a creation.

Abdullah ibn Abbas RA says regarding the Aayat:

"The Arabic Qur'an, in it there is no crookedness" -

- indicates that the Qur'an is not a creation.

"Because there is no creation except that crookedness is found in it."

Also Allah Ta'ala says regarding the Holy Qur'an that there is no crookedness in it.

Abdullah ibn Abbas RA once heard a person saying at the Ka'abah:

"O Rabb of the Qur'an..."

Then Abdllah ibn Abbas RA said:

"Do not let your tongue utter such words, indeed everything that is Marbuub (being nourished) is a creation; and the Qur'an is uncreated."

Also, if the Qur'an is a creation then it would be possible to find its equivalent.

Imaan Rabbani Mujjaddid Alfa Thaani RA said:

"The Qur'an is the Speech of Allah Ta'ala, which He has clothed with words and sounds and revealed it upon our Nabi SAW. In it He has addressed His servants with Commands and prohibitions. Just as we would bring to the fore our own speech by means of effort and the tongue, similarly our hidden object and aim is brought to the fore; in the same way Allah Ta'ala has clothed His own Speech in words and sounds without the use of effort or tongue, merely by His Perfect Power. In this way he has revealed it upon His servants and through the means of words and sounds He has made known His object. Therefore both types of speech that is His Own Speech and worded speech, are in reality the Speech of Allah Ta'ala. Just like the two types of our speech, own and worded are in reality one speech. Not that the first type (own) is literal and the second type (worded) is figurative. Because a sign of figurative is that it is permissible to negate it and (thereby) negate worded speech. And not to regard it as Allah Ta'ala's speech is undoubtedly Kufur. Like it is mentioned in the Qur'aan that the Kuffaar say:

"This (Qur'an) is but the speech of man."

Also if the Qur'aan was a creation then it would be possible to bring a similarity to it. And since it is not possible to bring anything similar to the Qur'an then it should be understood that it is eternal and uncreated.

Allah Ta'ala says:

"They listen to the Speech of Allah and then they change it."

The crux is that just like worded speech, own speech is also in reality speech. Like Allah Ta’ala says:

"They say to themselves why does Allah not punish us for what we say" , "Lower your speech or make it loud" - Saiyidina Umar RA said on the day of Saqeefah: "I prepared some speech in my mind."

*NOTE: The meaning of Saqifah is explained at the end of this article.

From these texts it is dear that both, worded speech and own speech, are in reality referred to as speech.

One should know that the speech of Allah Ta'ala is based in two meanings.

Firstly, Speech is Allah Ta'ala's encompassing Quality, that is connected to the Being of Allah Ta'ala. There is no doubt on its being eternal.

The second meaning is that by saying Speech - those words of Allah Ta'ala are meant which He has spoken. The Qur'an is referred to as the Speech of Allah Ta'ala in this meaning. This Qur'an is the Speech of Allah Ta'ala that was revealed upon Nabi Muhammad SAW, that we recite with our tongues and listen to with our ears and memorise in our hearts and is written on our pages. It is eternal and uncreated. However, the recitation of the Qur'an and its listening to and its writing is new and created, because this recitation and listening and writing are the doings of the servants. The actions of the servants are new and created actions.

The above is the view held by Imam Bukhari RA and other Ulama-ul-Muhaqqiqeen RA.

Imam Zahli's RA view is that - the person who says that the words of the Qur'an are new, that is the recitation and the listening to the Qur'an is new, then that person is a Bid'ati.

The object of Imam Bukhari RA was to differentiate between the Quality of Allah Ta'ala and the action of the slave.


* Saqifah:

Saqifah, also known as "Saqifa Bani Saeda" or Saqifat Bani Sa'ida, was a roofed building used by Banu (tribe) of Sa'ida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of Madinah. On the day that the Prophet Muhammad SAW died, the Ansar (Muslims originally from Madinah), gathered in the Saqifah to discuss the future & leadership of the Muslims. There were two tribes of the Ansar, the Khazraj and the Aws; who were both present. When the Prophet Muhammad SAW's companions, Abu Bakr RA and Umar RA learned of the gathering, they went to the meeting. After an extensive discussion, those who gathered there gave their Bai'ah (allegiance), to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq RA as the leader of the Muslims.

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